Group Differences Around the World (1) High IQ/grades, Low IQ/grades, Country Dominant class Discriminated class ---------------------------------------------------------- Australia Whites Aborigines Belgium French Flemish Czechoslovakia Slovaks Gypsies Great Britain English Irish, Scottish India Nontribals Tribal people High caste Low caste Israel Jews Arabs Western Jews Eastern Jews Brahmin Harijan Japan Non-Burakumin Burakumin Japanese origin Korean origin New Zealand Whites Maoris Northern Ireland Protestants Catholics South Africa English Afrikaaners (Dutch) United States Whites Blacks Whites Latinos Whites American Indians
Many conservatives argue that people who are smarter tend to go on to college more, and because whites are more intelligent than blacks, there are more whites in college. But regardless of the reason why this is so, it cannot be because of a genetic edge in intelligence. Consider the following information from the U.S. Census on the breakdown of white students who have graduated with a B.A. from college:
Proportions of Americans who have completed college by self-identified ancestries (2) French-Canadian 16.7 percent Dutch 18.5 Italian 21.0 Irish 21.2 German 22.0 Finnish 24.2 Norwegian 26.0 Danish 27.4 Swedish 27.4 Scotch-Irish 28.2 English 28.4 Welsh 31.8 Scottish 33.6 Russian 49.0
All the above are at least third-generation Americans, which would
give them sufficient time to join the college caste. Is it really reasonable
to blame the above differences on genetics? Notice that the Scottish have
nearly twice the college attendance as the Dutch, even though their ancestors
lived right across the Channel…
Most geneticists agree that there is far more genetic variation within groups than between groups. According to one commonly cited study, 85% of all human genetic variation is intra-population, 7% intra-race and only 8% inter-racial. (3)
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1. Sources for each country are as follows:
Australia: L.Z. Klich, "Aboriginal Cognition and Psychological Science," pp. 427-52 in S.H. Irvine and J.W. Berry (eds.) Human Abilities in Cultural Context (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Lesley Clark and Graeme Halford, "Does Cognitive Style Account for Cultural Differences?" Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 14 (September, 1983), pp. 279-96.
Belgium: John Raven, "The Raven Progressive Matrices: A Review of National Norming Studies and Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variation in the United States," Journal of Educational Measurement 26 (Spring, 1989), pp. 1-16, esp. fig. 2.
Czechoslovakia: Karol Adamovic, "Intellectual Development and Level of Knowledge in Gypsy Pupils in Relation to the Type of Education," Psychologia a Patopsychologia Dietata 14, 1979, 2:169-76 (translated abstract).
Great Britain: Research by Richard Lynn discussed in Ciaran Benson, "Ireland's 'Low' IQ," pp. 222-23 in Russell Jacoby and Naomi Glauberman (eds.), The Bell Curve Debate (New York: Times Books, 1995).
India: Caste differences - J.P. Das and Amulya Kanti Satpathy Khurana, "Caste and Cognitive Processes," pp. 487-508 in S.H. Irvine and J.W. Berry (eds.), Human Abilities in Cultural Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Sohani Das, "Level-I Abilities of Socially Disadvantaged Children: Effects of Home Environment, Caste and Age," Social Science International 10, (1994), 1-2:69-74; Sohani Das and Brahmananda Padhee, "Level II Abilities of Socially Disadvantaged Children: Effects of Home Environment, Caste and Age," Journal of Indian Psychology 11, (1993) 1-2:38-43 (abstract); Tribal differences - Anita Gupta and Qamar Jahan, "Differences in Cognitive Capacity among Tribal and Non-Tribal High School Students of Himachal Pradesh," Manas 36, (1994), 1-2:17-25 (abstract);.
Israel: Arabs - Kugelmass et al., "Patterns of Intellectual Ability"; news item that, in 1992, 26% of Jewish high school students passed matriculation exam versus 15% of Arab students - Jerusalem Reports, January 12, 1995; cf. Lieblich et al., "Patterns of Intellectual Ability." Eastern Jews - Gross, Cultural Concomitants of Preschoolers' Preparation for Learning"; Yehezekal Dar and Nura Resh, "Socioeconomic and Ethnic Gaps in Academic Achievement in Israeli Junior High Schools," pp. 332-27 in Nico Bleichrodt and Peter Drenth (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Cross-Cultural Psychology (Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1991); Brahmins - Radhe Shyam, "Variations in Concentration of 'g' Level Abilities among Different Groups," Journal of Personality & Clinical Studies 2 (September, 1986), pp. 123-26 (abstract)
Japan: Burakumin - A. Shimahara, "Social Mobility and Education: Burakumin in Japan," pp. 327-356 in Margaret A. Gibson and John U. Ogbu (eds.), Minority Status and Schooling: A Comparative Study of Immigrants and Involuntary Minorities (New York: Garland, 1991); Koreans - Yongsook Lee, "Koreans in Japan and the United States," pp. 139-65 in Margaret Gibson, op cit.; George DeVos and William Wetherall, Japans Minorities (London: Minorities Rights Group, 1983).
New Zealand: John Ogbu, Minority Education and Caste:The American System in Cross-Cultural Perspective (New York: Academic Press, 1978); Ross St. George, "Cognitive Ability Assessment in New Zealand: Some Remarks," New Guinea Psychologist 3 (August 1971), pp. 42-46.
Northern Ireland: Richard Lynn et al., "Home Background, Intelligence, Personality and Education as Predictors of Unemployment in Young People," Personality and Individual Differences (1984), 5:549-57.
South Africa: J.M. Verster and R.J. Prinsloo, "The Diminishing Test Performance Gap Between English Speakers and Afrikaans Speakers in South Africa," pp. 534-60 in S.H. Irvine op cit.
United States: Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, (New York: The Free Press, 1994). Also, for Native Americans - Avery Church, "Academic Achievement, IQ, Level of Occupational Plans, and Ethnic Stereotypes for Anglos and Navahos in a Multi-ethnic High School," Southern Journal of Educational Research (Summer, 1976), pp. 184-201.
2. U.S. Census data reported by Andrew Hacker, "Caste, Crime and Precocity," p. 105 in Steven Fraser (ed.), The Bell Curve Wars (New York: HarperCollins, 1995).
3. R.C. Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon J. Kamin, Not In Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (Random House, 1984).